Friday, 2 October 2015

Malaysia's National Anthem

Malaysia, tighten your seat belts please.

We know that the ringgit is down in the dumps - that puts paid to shopping for imported foodstuff and prezzies for the coming festivities.  Our little darlings -  Kevin, Suu Lin, Farhana Faezah, Arul Armand will pout and scream because overseas holidays will have to be put on hold.

Right now, the nation's name and reputation is mud!

We're all at each other's throats claiming moral superiority for our divided loyalties and our choice of heroes and  villains.

Well, here's something else to worry about.  Did you know that the arch-English composer Benjamin Britten was paid a handsome fee (for a 1-minute song) to compose our National Anthem in 1957 and our then leaders. rejected it !!

"The great English composer Benjamin Britten once wrote Malaysia a national anthem - only for it to be rejected in favour of a cabaret tune.  Did the government make a horrible mistake, asks Alex Marshall, author of a new book on the history of anthems."

For more titillations to feed another fracas in Malaysia, read :

I shudder to think about the disgruntled voices arising from this news item.

1. Our aficionados of classical western music would be wringing their hands in despair. This only proves how crass and stupid the Government was - to reject this great British composer. Just think - how proud we would feel when our national anthem - composed by the Benjamin Britten - is played at our local and international soirees.

2.  100 guineas?? This is corrupt cronyism. The Government must get back their money with interest - it's been 58 years.  Check the bank accounts of the politicians , the bureaucrats and the Minister of National Anthems.

3.  Our uber-Arabised brethren will be foaming at the mouth when they realise that Negaraku was once a hit number  "at parties and cabarets  ..... and went on to be a popular Hawaian song".

Do read the BBC article.  It cheered me up no end.

                                            *                                 *                                    *

And now do enjoy the Top of the Anthems.

1. Britten's 100 guineas composition. That's 2100 shillings or GBP105 in 1957.  That would be a helluva dosh today. And when you take into account that the exchange rate is 1 GBP = 6.7 MYR  !!???

2.  The ancestor of Negaraku - not a great pedigree - but still a "gently stirring"  and endearing melody.


Monday, 28 September 2015

Little China and Big China - a Malaysian ordeal?

WARNING :  Some parts of this posting is written in Nanyang-style (Nanyang = Overseas Chinese) English/Singlish. Some readers may find the vocabulary, sentence structure and phraseology confusing but most Singaporeans and Malaysians, except for the Westernized and Arabised,  can follow the gist of the article.)

Aiyah! this Malaikwai (Malay devil) so fed-up man!

Why the Cina bukit ( a particular species of Nanyang Chinese) act so tua kee  (big shot) one?

After the yellow T-shirt and Red T-shirt game shows - now the desper-rate Ah Kows and Ah Lians must look for Big Brother in Big China for  help.  They used to sakar (flatter)  all those gullible and greedy Malai with so many gimmicks to be their kaki  for Ali Baba consortiums - and get their support for money-making business. 

Now I hear about the China Ambassador's walkabout in Petaling Street .  He  say "China is against any form  of extremism, racism or terrorism and will not sit idly or tolerate them."    Oh boy. Malaysia better be careful man.  This is no Ah Beng speaking - he represent the top Big Shot on the Asian Block!  Sure the Tow Kays, Ah Kows and Ah Lians feel very  kambang  now, because they can feel they have bigger clout in MalaikwaiLand.

This will make very good Chinese soap opera - "Flying Dragon and Crouching Lizard".  The Malai can be the lalat.  And there will of course be some privileged and well-connected flies - we will call them "the Lords of the Flies".

But I wonder, what if Malaysian Ambassador in China go to Xinjiang and Tibet and  repeat the same statement??    Wah, he wouldn't dare!    Even though the people of Xinjiang and Tibet are not so free and not so rich as the lucky Chinese in Malaysia.

So maybe the Chinese Ambassador in Malaysia should also visit all those Chinese schools and Colleges, and all the Chinese company headquarters, and all the temples, and all the high up land with good feng shui - now full of exclusive condominiums.....and Chinese cemeteries.

Hong Kong, at least, got real problems in that department:.

South China Morning Post - 15 Oct 2011
So come on, Malaysia.      Dead or living, where there's opportunity (loads of it in Malaysia), there's got to be money.

                              * * * *                     * * * *                      * * * *

So let's think about it.   If we follow the logic of the scenario, we may have to resort to the tactics of yore.

1. The bunga mas was presented by the Sultans of Malacca to the Emperor of China every year  as a token of vassalage to the Middle Kingdom.  Today, the price of gold is not too steady and petroleum and natural gas is not too exciting - so maybe Malaysia could sell the latter (with the connivance of the Lords of the Flies) at a very discounted price (as they say, 'we all kam cheng  (kawan) lah' ).

Furthermore, what else can we sell at a discount?  Land for polluting industries, for property developers and facilities for entrepreneurs in the tourism industry who can then  market our Malay culture, our beaches, offshore islands and hilltop resorts for cheap tourism and plenty of gambling. Nothing new?    Well think of the huge huge market up there!   Especially for the gambling!

To hell with the wildlife, the Orang Asli and the fishermen!!

2.  To foster the relationship between  the Malacca Sultanate and China, Princess Hang Li Po was given away as a bride for Sultan Mansur Shah.  In our modern setting, perhaps a grand marriage between a celebrity in China (maybe a tycoon or a pop star - there are no more princesses in modern China) and Royalty or top Celebrity in Malaysia might cement much goodwill??

Writing about democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville ( 1805-1859) wrote : We get the government we deserve.

Here's my variation on the above quote,

Poor, dear Tanah Air Ku - You don't deserve the government or the people you've got. 

Sunday, 13 September 2015

Confessions of a Veteran Street Protestor

PART ONE: My Lady doth protest too much

 I was young, I was naive. I had unbounded self-confidence (or arrogance?), thinking that I knew just what my country needed and how!  With gusto and hauteur, my fellow undergraduates and I in 1966 marched in protest at the Singapore University Campus against the Suitability Certificate  (a condition for admittance into University) and the right for Academic Freedom and Autonomy.

AsH the Samseng 'freedom fighter' - 4th from left.  (Note the scooters on the right.)  One of the placards carried this indignant message : Politics NO!  Integrity YES.  Some of the leaders and participants on that march - when they graduated and moved into the real world - took no part in either politics or  integrity!!

Out of that single Campus protest I recall  one of the most radical and vociferous voices against the system, who became a member of a political club - no, not the Democratic Socialist Club (a sort of wishy-washy pal of the PAP) but the more radical Socialist Club.  After we all graduated in 1967, this  hard-core 'leftie'  (by Singapore standards) got himself a plum job in the Ministry of Culture, Singapore.  It's all about the fox in the hen-house!  Or the proverbial 'heart on the left and pocket on the right' !!

So you see, protests of the young and not-so-young against the system are nothing new.  Although it's quite impossible to see this scenario in Singapore  nowadays (no wonder several of our politicians and social commentators are dead keen on emulating Singapore)  protest  movements in Malaysia are almost like an annual festival, in all shades of colour, gaiety and agenda.

Another fascinating feature of these Malaysian "Springs" is the network created, extending over national and international landscapes -and even occurring in one of the world's youngest states, Timor Leste.  This, of course, is partly because (compared with the dinosaur-technology of  the 1960s) communications today are much more advanced, with the internet and the social media making connections more pervasive and widespread.  But I often wonder why this 'spring' has not sprung in Malaysia's own backyard in the  rural and poorer parts of the nation.   Could it be they don't have mobile telephones?    Of course they do.      So could it be other things are more important??

Then there's the matter of leadership, and who it is that inspires.   Well, every cause and protest movement must have a leader - a charismatic and articulate leader who can wield the arm of unity of belief and purpose.  And such a leader there is, according to a reliable source: one who crossed the globe to make a  "special guest appearance in London to meet Malaysians ..... kindly agreed to give a talk this Sunday 23rd August in Central London."  And who then "flies home to take part in the main KL march but she will be with us in spirit."       The leadership's clarion calling sounds almost messianic.

But let's not forget that there can be other external guiding leaders and mentors like the Oslo Freedom Forum, organised by Thor Halvorssen Mendoza's Human Rights Foundation (HRF).


Here are extracts from the above post:






PART TWO: The burdens of youth

George Bernard Shaw had this to say about Age: Youth, which is forgiven everything, forgives itself nothing: age which forgives itself anything, is forgiven nothing.

I do envy the young Malaysians who, on the 29th and 30th August (with non-Malaysian support) had the means, the reasons and the opportunities to go into the streets of London, especially at Belgrave Square, to demand the resignation of the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

In 1975, at the London University School of Education (Malet Street), I was sitting in a classroom with my other classmates waiting for the lecturer to turn up. Then a couple of students stopped at the door, calling us to join them in a demonstration downstairs.  One of them  gave me an intense look as if to say "what about you?".  I had to respond,  " Sorry, I'm here at my own expense. I intend to get the education I paid for."  Some of my classmates shook their heads to indicate 'no', the others simply ignored them.

You see, I couldn't afford to expend my energy and time supporting "good causes".   I was living week to week on my meagre allowance.  By the weekend, I would have just enough  milk and bread to see me through till Monday when I began my next allowance.  For 'entertainment', my good friend Loo Lee and I would pack a meal of sandwiches and milk and go for lovely, long walks in the various beautiful parks in London or venture to the free British Museum and National Gallery.  For transport we had our monthly season ticket on the Underground.

Furthermore, my father did not have the benefit of a pension or an accumulation of  property and financial reserve to subsidize my one year at London University.  In fact, my parents were dependent on my siblings' and my financial support.  For this post-graduate course I was supporting myself on my savings and my six-months half-pay.  I had my budget finely tuned so that it would last right through the Examination and I could then seamlessly get back to teaching when I had the additional piece of paper.  I toyed with the idea of spending another year at the School of Education to get to the Masters-of-Education - I reckoned I could get by for the extra year with part-time jobs. (I already had an evening job clearing tables at the ULU Refectory).   But three months into my course, on 21 December 1974, my father passed away and I knew I had to go home and stop at the Academic Diploma. The Masters degree had to wait - for another 10 years.

PART THREE: Growing old ... and angry

Jai came along with us for this demonstration against the war in Bosnia in 1995.  The brown bag contained our drinks and food for lunch and pre-dinner comestibles.

Since the mid-1980s, the spouse and I have been to umpteen protest marches in England.  It involved travelling nearly 100 miles from Leicester to London and another 100 miles to get back home. Sometimes we took the National Express coach, or we drove and parked the car at Golders Green. At other times we travelled with the local Anti-War or Support for Gaza coaches.

 We also attended several marches in support of the two Intifadas - in 1987 and 2000.  This was where I saw what grief for your homeland can look like ; a grief that is quiet, enduring and painful. There was no music, no dancing, no enthusiastic sounds from drums and horns that usually accompany a demonstration.  There were mums and dads pushing their little ones in buggies.  But the most poignant and heart-rending was this Palestinian family.  The father had his 5 year old daughter on his shoulders and the mother held the hand of their 8 year old son and they walked and chanted in a tone only audible to anyone immediately next to them, "Palesteen .... Palesteen ....Palesteen".  (The Palestinians do not pronounce the last syllable as tyne.)

 At the turn of the 21st century there were two huge demonstrations against the War on Iraq.  My sister and brother-in-law, Mak Haji Maznah (60) and Pak Haji Harun (67), - two retired cikgus  from Batu Pahat -joined us for the 400,000 anti-war demonstration on September 28, 2002. That was a day they will never forget.

We were on our own for the largest ever protest march - over 1 million - on 15 Feb 2003.  We were all expressing our worry and concern over a second attack on Iraq (following the First Iraq War of 1990-1991).  This anti-war protest took place all over the world.   Of course, thanks to the arms manufacturers, the oil-thirsty industrialists, Israel, the Islamophobes, the power-mad leaders like Blair and Bush (AND with the tacit and not-so-tacit agreement of the Arab states) Iraq was shredded to pieces.  But this was just part of the bloody dismemberment of the Muslim world (from Iraq, Libya, Yemen, and Syria, to Palestine, Somalia and Afghanistan) led by the world's two most powerful Judaeo Christian nations.

The Anti-War Protest of 15 February 2003.

Such is the strength of "people power" that one month later - after and despite this huge demonstration against the War -  on 19 March 2003, Bush invaded Iraq.

The protest against this war was expressed not only by Muslims (well, some Muslim nations) but across every colour, creed, religion and nationality.

Then in November (18-21) 2003, Bush made a formal visit to Great Britain.  He was granted a Royal audience.  The establishment knew of a looming anti-Bush and anti-war demonstration and decided to keep Bush's route a secret so that the American President would not be embarrassed by those tens of thousands of the British populace lining his route and calling him a war criminal and shouting at him to go home.

November 2003 - the spouse holding our very own home-made and home-designed placard.  It was inspired by that very popular 1960s song, "Yellow Rose of Texas".

By then , of course, the British public were weary, disheartened and disillusioned.  The main issue of the war against the Muslim world was less popular - although people did at least maintain a sense of loyalty to their "boys" who were fighting in a war that they did not want or believe in.  (Which made me wonder: would most Malaysians feel and act the same way in supporting our "boys"?  The history of the Communist Insurgency from 1948 to 1960, at least, suggests not.

After 2003, in Leicester and London,we attended several other activities in support of Palestine and Gaza.   We got no buzz and no kick from such demonstrations.      In fact, if anything, we went with a sense of gathering despondency at the way so many hundreds of millions of people were being made to suffer..

And I would always remind myself of a basic truth: as a Singaporean and later a Malaysian, I had been so very fortunate in never having to suffer or fear mayhem and bloodshed because my country had been attacked and occupied by the Big Boys of the world.
                                     .....                    .....                    .....                    .....

For one who's a loner and a maverick, I don't expect overt support for my unconventional and bolshie viewpoints.     But I do try to remember the victims.     Of all kinds.      I hold very dear this memory from 1978 when I was sent to teach at Anglo-Chinese Junior College, Singapore's most pukka missionary Sixth Form College.

See :

Of course, the world is much wider than this.    In the end, I can only hope that our (and so many others) presence at all those street protests will transmit to the voiceless, neglected, unrepresented victims our empathy for their sufferings.   And the knowledge that they are not alone - albeit it's just cold comfort.

The news cries out for more empathy.    Take the plight of refugees risking their lives to escape war and violence in their now-demolished homelands.     The sound of (near) silence is almost deafening.

Good Luck Syrians, Iraqis, Palestinians, Yemenis, Libyans, Somalis, Eritreans, Afghanis, Rohingyas  ......

Sunday, 30 August 2015

Will the last Anak Melayu to leave the room please switch off the light?

Fifty-eight years ago, on 31 Aug 1957, at 691 Pasir Panjang Road Singapore, the whole family were sitting around our radio, listening to the commentary of the declaration of Malaya's independence.  Came the part when the Union Jack was lowered and the Malayan flag took its place.

I saw the tears rolling down from Abah's eyes. I was only 13 and I just had to ask Abah "why?"

"I cry because my country is free (of the British).  But I also fear for the future of my country and my people."

 Today, in my father's Tanah-Air, his fears have come true.  Allahyarham Usman Awang's lament  ..

 ...... returns to haunt us again.

The shameful and shabby shenanigans of  Malay leadership - past and present -  only serves to prove George Santayana's (1863-1952) quote :

Those who do not remember the past are condemned to relive it.

We are becoming or have become a condemned race.

When the longest serving 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia gave his blessings for the Chinese/Indian-dominated Bersih 4, and their agenda  ...

...... then indeed we are condemned.  I fear for the lower-income Malays living in the kampung and on the margins of cities like KL, JB , Ipoh and Pulau Pinang.  All, if not a majority of them have been loyal to UMNO and all its leaders.

When Bill Clinton was asked if  he smoked marijuana, he confessed he experimented with it, but he did not inhale!  I suppose our 4th Prime Minister could also declare that he did not participate in Bersih 4, he only visited the site after it was over.

Tomorrow is the 58th anniversary of Malaya's independence.  What independence?  Whose independence?

Osman, our road sweeper friend said to me. "Alah Kak.  Merdeka apa ni?  Merdeka kepala otak!"

Indeed  'Man - tis only Merdeka for those who are using their kepala otak - for selling their  bangsa down the river.

I'm done with spitting at the sky.

Wednesday, 26 August 2015

What's it all about, Rusty?

We have an uncanny cat.

When we moved to our house in Setiawangsa, a black cat we would call "Poppy" seemed to be a part of the place.   A stray cat, she hung around, very warily, and we fed her.    Poppy had kittens, and when she disappeared after a neighbour's wedding, the four offspring stayed.    One of them was called Rusty.

When we were back in Leicester 2 years ago, Rusty was taken ill and our niece Maria had to take him to the vet at Wangsa Maju.  We were of course dreadfully worried and concerned.  And then something very weird happened.

The spouse picked up the phone and dialed the Vet's KL number.   Suddenly, through the French window, he caught a fleeting glance of a black cat that looked exactly like Rusty.    That was odd - we had never had a cat in the backyard before.   Occasionally, at night, a fox.   But never a cat.

The spouse called me to look.      The black cat  gave  a piercing and long stare at the both of us as we gasped, "It's Rusty!!"    After doing a little 'job' in our back garden plot,  Rusty's double climbed the wall and disappeared.   And we never saw him again.

The spouse carried on with the call to the Vet.   Rusty was fine, she assured us, and was responding to treatment.      We didn't tell her, then, that we had already seen Rusty's agent!!

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.  (from Shakespeare's Hamlet)

Since then poor Rusty has been in and out of the Vet's - taking up medical residence for 1 month, then a few weeks and on our last sojourn in Leicester he was in for 3 months until we got back.  This time the Vet suggested that Rusty may require an operation to remove a part of his flabby colon.  Since June, we have been carefully tending to Rusty's health and diet and finally today we bit the bullet and decided to take him to Jalan Gasing Veterinary Hospital for the operation.

Two things worried us.  Firstly Rusty's operation.  Secondly, getting to PJ.   During Hari Raya, we had visited some friends in Taman Tun Dr Ismail and Kampung Tunku.   We got lost before we got to TTDI, and then must have spent forty-five minutes going round and round Kampung Tunku's 'mulberry bush' to look for the address we wanted.  To get home our host kindly offered to lead us to DUKE highway in his car and get us back on our way.   It was that bad for us!

This time we turned to Google maps for the route to Jalan Gasing.

From Setiawangsa to Jalan Gasing - The Guide and Map.
NB - We don't believe in SatNavs.

With our hearts in our mouths, we made the journey to Jalan Gasing and back to Setiawangsa.   In the end, it was fairly straightforward.

But most thankful of all, the Specialist Vet did not think an operation was necessary.    He had seen far worse cases, and Rusty, he said, could be managed with a proper diet and plenty of liquid.

And here's Rusty melepak-ing in the garden after the trauma of the car ride.

He has to be kept on a harness and leash to stop him scavenging for food around the neighbourhood.  Rusty has a stomach like a bottomless pit - that's why his colon is in the state it's in.

Here are a couple of snaps to show where Rusty used to look for snacks.

This is a frequent scene in our neighbourhood - rubbish which are chucked and tucked away from the houses with the Mercedes, BMWs, Hondas and Toyotas.  And it's just beside our fence!  Nimbys - a proud aspect of this Malay middle-class suburbia!

The discards from suburbia deposited near Osman and Aisha's work trolley.  This means additional work for them.  Note the Clarks shoes in the blue plastic basket.  In its condition, that could be sold in our charity shop, Leicester Animal Rescue.  No wonder Malaysians are worried sick about the depreciating ringgit!

Aisha chatting with her favourite stray cat next to a pile of leaves that she had just swept together.

So Rusty's days of rummaging and snacking on rubbish are over.

We also notice the population of stray cats in our neighbourhood is growing.  (They are being fed by some of us and by Osman and Aisha - our road sweepers -  who between them earn just about MYR 2,000 per month ).There's one particular one, ridden with mange.  It took the spouse two months to coax it into a cage (on the first try, it actually picked up the saucer of food with its teeth and carried it out of the cage!) so that it could be treated at the vet's to rid it of its miserable discomfort and  before it could infect the other cats in the vicinity.

The two geriatrics too had a fair share of falls this time.  Ash had it on the first of Ramadan and the spouse said he had never seen such a graceful fall.  Six weeks later it was his turn.  After a lovely dinner of ikan tiga rasa we discovered the car's battery had given up the ghost (because we forgot to turn off the lights).  So we walked in the semi- dark, for about one km along Jalan Setiawangsa to get the mechanic.  Iain tripped and fell, grazing the knee and elbow, ruining a pair of trousers.  But he fell like a pro, making sure his bionic hip was not affected.

So that's the Story of Ash for the last few months - a bit woeful but we're luckier than most.

Sunday, 9 August 2015

A little jaunt into escapism ......

.......  in the last few weeks I find myself preferring to keep away from printed and electronic news and views.    I know that in the razzmatazz-culture of software and hard disks and facebook and twitter; books and the appreciation of books are not coooool.     Well, as a card-carrying member of the dinosaur generation I've been indulging myself again,  leafing through my collection of books - books I've been accumulating since the 1960s, books that were bought brand-new from MPH, Donald Moore, Peter Chong and University bookshops during the 1960s and 1970s - as well as second-hand books scavenged in Singapore, Batu Pahat, Muar, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Kangsar, Chowrasta in Penang, Brunei, India, and New Zealand.    The cream of the crop came from forays to jumble sales, charity shops, library book sales, car boots and second hand book shops in England.  Because it's such an  oldy-woldy country there's such an abundance of  antiquated and nostalgic stuff to amass - from stamps and spoons to books and writing bureaus.  But I digress.

In the old days when books had pride of place in many homes, books published by Penguin were as common as mobiles and televisions and computers today.     Remember this ?

Fig. 1

I first read this in 1960 and again a few months ago.  The detective-hero is Albert Campion and I was unaware until just recently, that Margery Allingham's stories had been made into a BBC TV series in 1989-1990.

Penguin Books were first published in 1935 - making inexpensive paperback books available to the public.  Penguin was responsible not only for producing fiction but also books on serious themes in the sciences, arts and politics.

Back in the 1930s, Noel Carrington met up with the founder of Penguin, Allen Lane and suggested a series of fiction and non-fiction  paperback books for children.  And so Puffin Books was born. Puffin grew in leaps and bounds stretching from The Lion, the Witch and  the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis to Roald Dahl, Janet and Alan Ahlberg and Richard Adam's Watership Down  (which I read many times over and which made me cry buckets of tears each time!).

Here are a couple of Puffin books in my keeping.
Fig. 2 . First published 1937. Published in Puffin Story Books 1955.

Fig. 3 -1980s Fiction.

As for the Puffin logo it had had several makeovers.

Fig. 4 - 1940s

Fig. 5 - 1970s

Fig. 6 - 1980s

In keeping up with technology, Puffin now produces Puffin Virtually Live - a series of interactive webcasts.

But give me the paper-back version any time - one I can read in the bus, behind the door to escape my mother looking for me to buy her kelapa parut from the one shop (about 1 mile away from our Pasir Panjang kampung) that had the hi-tech (for the 1950s!) machine for grating raw coconut.  Best of all I can tuck away my book - all dog-eared and mucky - under my pillow.

But this is my most precious Puffin, nicked from the spouse's book shelf 31 years ago!!  He tried to reclaim this Puffin but as it doesn't have his name in it - too bad, mate!

Fig. 7

Fig. 8 - Note the flags of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Transjordan.

 "The Arabs" was published in 1947, written by R. B. Serjeant and illustrated by Edward Bawden.  Because I had a thoroughly colonial education, and learned very little about the non-Christian/Caucasian world,  this book would have been a real change from imbibing the history of Imperial India, Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand,  UK the Motherland, Europe and China.  For someone who is fascinated with maps, this book provides wonderful maps to show the location of the Arab world in 750 AD and the Arab world 'today' between 1919 up to the end of the Second World War as well as a map of pre-Israel Palestine.

Map 1 - The Arab World in AD 750

Map 2 - The Arab World between 1919 (the end of the Ottoman Empire)  and 1945.  

Map 3 - Palestine before the creation of Israel in 1948.

The world tends to regard the Arabs (and Muslims for that matter) as a homogeneous group of people. But Serjeant made this very clear when he wrote this in 1947.

Fig.  9 - From page 3.

He then went on to describe Arab life in the villages, of the freer life in the desert, of mountain Arabs, Marsh Arabs and Arabs of the sea coast. Serjeant made a "sincere effort to present the history and culture of the region".   In school we all learned about  Vasco Da Gama as the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and the East.  But we were never told  about  his Arab pilot Ibn Majid  ...
Fig. 10  - From page 14.

.........  which Serjeant did!

The rest of the book touched upon the birth and growth of Islam, the Arab conquests, the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates and just a cursory reference to the Crusades.

When Serjeant moved on to the topics of the decline and the awakening of the Arabs, then we see the workings of the imperial designs of the British, the French, the Italians and the Germans to carve up the post-Ottoman Muslim Middle East into their little fiefdoms.  Compare Map 2 and Map 4 especially the division and creation of smaller Arab states like Kuwait, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan (Trans Jordan), Iraq, Sudan and Egypt and of course Saudi Arabia.

Note how Serjeant  ( a Scottish 'Arabist' and traveller, who lived from 1915 to 1993) dismissed the mighty Ottoman Empire  ......

Map 4 - The Ottoman Empire in 1683  (Wikipedia)

...... as  " backward Turkish rulers"

Fig. 11 (from page 31)

The Ottoman empire, founded in 1299, ended in 1922 because they "could not resist the advance of modern western states like Britain and France".  It was one of the world's most powerful states in the 15th and 16th centuries.  Extending from the Middle East to Hungary, the Balkans, Greece and parts of the Ukraine, it was regarded as a transcontinental empire, and a meeting point between east and west.  But like all empires it could not last for ever.

This was how Serjeant (and the Caucasian-Christian powers) laid out the future of the Muslim-Arab world after the First and Second World War.

Fig 12 - from page 30

Fig 13 - from page 31

A striking feature of this Puffin book is the lack of photographs.   It is illustrated completely by sketches and drawings by Bawden (1903-1989) a well-known English illustrator and painter.   Lovely for a children's book, but I remembered other ways of recording history....

So let me try to link Bawden's sketches with some photographs - and with some stamps from the spouse's childhood stamp album.    The spouse himself has a hazy memory of the Middle East (he remembers seeing the banks of the Suez Canal in 1947).   But his childhood was scattered with images of Middle Eastern politics nevertheless - in his stamp album..

1.  King Abd al-Aziz of Saudi Arabia  (1876-1953).  In 1915  he allied himself with the British and Arabia became a British protectorate from 1915-1927.    In 1932 he declared himself as King of Saudi Arabia.  In Map 1, there's only 'Arabia' and it became 'Saudi Arabia' in Map 2.

In 1937 American explorers discovered oil in Saudi Arabia , "more oil ....... than in the United States itself !"  (Serjeant)

2.  King Faisal I of Iraq

King Faisal I  ( 1883-1933). Reigned from 1921 - 1933.

King Faisal had a very complex background.  He was the son of the Sharif of Mecca (the then guardian of Islam's holy places).  His association with T.E. Lawrence  and the Arab Revolt are all too familiar. He was at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.  Even though Syrian nationalists had installed him as their ruler in 1920 (with the blessings of the British), the French threw him out and Faisal was given the second prize by the British - they planned a new throne for him in Iraq. We all know how this game of musical chairs is still being played out in the Middle East, this time with new goons on the block like the USA and Israel!

His reign was fraught with problems but he managed to maneuvre some kind of independence for Iraq in 1932.  In the end, his role in juggling the various anarchic factions in Iraq ended only in tears and he died in 1933 in Berne - poisoned according to some sources.

He was succeeded by his son Ghazi I (1912-1939) but his reign was short (1933-1939).  Ghazi was killed in a mysterious car crash and his son Faisal II (1935-1958) the boy-king was installed ......

Faisal II (1935-1958).  Reigned from 1939-1958.
 ........ guided by the Regent, his uncle.  Faisal's reign was cut short mainly because of the Regent's and his decision to allow UK to retain control of Iraqi affairs.  Iraq was tied up to the British Empire by a 25 year military alliance with the British maintaining her military bases. The Iraq Petroleum Company, a conglomerate of British, French and US interests were ensured concessions for oil exploration and production. There were massive protests against these so-called alliances with Britain and the West and hundreds of demonstrators died.  As a result the relationship between the King and the people deteriorated.  In 1958  Faisal II was deposed  and killed  in the July Revolution of 1958.  Iraq became a Republic and was ruled by various secular leaders culminating in the rise  of Saddam Hussein as President of Iraq in 1979.

3.  Sidi Idris al-Sanusi or Idris of Libya  (1889-1983)

Idris of Libya (1889-1983) . Reigned from 1951-1969.

....and from the spouse's stamp album:
Libya was seized from the Ottomans and she became an Italian colony from 1910-1947.

Idris allied himself with the British during the Second World War to get rid of the Italian colonists. He was the first and only king of Libya and was deposed in 1969 in a coup led by Army Officers.

Muammar Gaddafi became President of Libya from 1969 until he was  "defeated " and murdered during the "Arab Spring Awakening" of 2011.  Gaddafi was, for many years, a thorn in the side of the West and the "Arab Spring" was a god-given opportunity for  NATO countries to  break up and weaken this belligerent  and oil-rich Arab nation.

4.  Emir Abdullah of Transjordan / King Abdullah I of Jordan

Abdullah 1 of Jordan ( 1882-1951)
Emir of  Transjordan from 1921-1946

King of Jordan from 1946-1951

Brother of King Faisal I of Iraq, he worked with the Brtish agent T.E. Lawrence against Ottoman rule during the First World War.  The Jordanian royal family, up to the present, have been close allies of the British.  In fact the mother of the present King Abdullah II  was the daughter of a British military officer.

King Abdullah I was assassinated at Al Aqsa in 1951

5.  Imam Yahya of Yemen (1869-1948)  Reigned from  (1918-1948)

Imam Yahya came from  the al-Qasimi dynasty who had been ruling "most of  Yemen proper and South Saudi Arabia for 900 years" (wiki).  Today Yemen, like Libya and Iraq, is awash with violence and bloodshed - caught up in a maelstrom of  political machinations by the West and its proxies, and the fractured and divisive legacies of post-Ottoman, post First World War policies.

Certainly Serjeant's summation has come to naught.

Fig. 14 - Page 31
Fig. 15 -Page 32

Imam Yahya was assassinated in February 1948 by a member of the Bani Murad tribe.

6.  King Farouq of Egypt (1920-1965) reigned from 1936-1952.  The Egyptian monarchy was set up by the British in the 1920s and Farouq succeeded his father King Fuad I in 1936.  He led a "scandalous and grotesquely self-indulgent lifestyle and the belief that some of his closest associates had profited by supplying defective weapons and munitions to the forces had eroded the army's loyalty" - he was "despised at home and abroad as an ineffectual playboy", (Richard Cavendish in History Today.2002).

King Farouq ruled from 1936-1952

He was overthrown in a coup led by Army Officers in 1952 and Egypt was declared a Republic.

As Serjeant was concerned only with the British fiefdoms in the Middle East; Syria and Lebanon which were part of the French booty after the end of the Ottoman empire were not included in his purview.  Still, I shall insert those stamps from the 1930s that celebrated the hegemony of the Christian-Caucasian Europeans before the coming of the mighty Empire of the United States-cum-Israel.


And the most pulverized people in the world - Palestine.


To quote :  '

Us and Them: Ethnocentrism and Racism

As any demagogue will tell you, if you want to instill a certain belief in a population, get 'em while they're young.  Children are generally short on life experience, and must rely on adults for much of their information about the world.  This provides the perfect opportunity for a culture to pass its worst qualities - racism, xenophobia, etc - to the next generation.

A Malaysian Postscript

How would my view of Arabs and  Arab history be tainted if I had read Serjeant's and Bawden's book when I was 10-11?   In those days, of course, my perception of the non-white/Christian world was effectively perverted by my colonial education.  However, as we can observe around us here in Malaysia and in other parts of the Islamic world, we are doing to ourselves what the West worked so hard to achieve, in brainwashing  our fathers and forefathers.

Here's a video of our Arab brothers making their annual hijrah to London to escape the heat in Arabland and to swagger their wealth - and this time it coincides with Ramadan 2015!   Was this what their forefathers fought for nearly a hundred years ago?

                                        Eid Mubarak! 

Today the Arabs in the Middle East  have not "fallen behind the West in scientific and technical progress."  (See Fig. 10,  from page 31.)  But they now have unremitting wars and bloodshed.  Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya and Palestine have become an inferno of chaos and violence and deaths.  I wonder what Serjeant would write about the Syrian refugees fleeing in desperation for safety and succour.

Here in our part of the world, we have our version of  'Young Turks' - eager to be The Other, to rise above the colour of their skin and the framework of their culture, to deny their ethnicity and to claim 'we are all the same'.

Well, just last week we found ourselves sitting at breakfast in our local makan shop with a  Malaysian academic,  He had a Ph.D and as he is a Malay in his late 50s, I guess he must be one of those beneficiaries of the NEP  during the reign of his much-hated UMNO - paid for by the rakyat. He is very knowledgeable in western science and Islam.  Over our plates of  tosai he expounded to us about al-Qada' wa'l-Qadar (Divine Will and Decree), and to conclude his pontificating he declared that he preferred to be regarded as a Muslim and not a Malay.  (And this Muslim male, by the way, tended to look away - or down his nose -whenever I had something to add to the conversation.)

What experience and history teach is this - that people and governments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it.  ( Hegel 1770 - 1831)

Et tu Malays?  [Even you/And you Malays ?]

But then - I'm only a woman!  And this post is just a female's jaunt into escapism.